Further prospects of development of electronics contact creation of the devices using the quantum phenomena in which the account already goes on units of electrons. Recently theoretical and pilot studies of artificially created low-dimensional structures are widely conducted; quantum layers, provolok and points. It is expected that the specific quantum phenomena which are observed in these systems can form the basis of creation of essentially new type of electronic devices.
Unique properties of a bacteriorhodopsin provide the wide range of technical appendices in which it can be used, however are commercially feasible today only optical as their integration into modern technical systems is simplest.
BR contains in a cellular membrane of H. salinarum - a galofilny archaebacteria which lives and breeds in salty bogs and lakes where concentration of NaCl can exceed 4 M that is 6 times higher, than in sea water (~ 0,6 M). This unique protein is in many respects similar to visual protein to a rodopsin though their physiological functions are various. While visual works as primary photoreceptor which provides dark sight of the majority of vertebrate animals, the physiological role of BR consists in giving the chance to galobakteriya to work as facultative anaerobe bacterias in a case when the partsialny pressure of oxygen in environment is not enough. Protein functions as the svetozavisimy proton pump which provides formation of an electrochemical gradient of protons on a cage membrane surface which, in turn, serves for energy accumulation. Primary work performed by a gradient consists in synthesis of ATP through anaerobic ( a fosforitsirovaniye and, in this case, represents a classical example of a hemiosmotichesky hypothesis of Mitchell of an oxidizing fosforitsirovaniye. When lighting is absent, and the partsialny pressure of oxygen highly, bacteria come back to an aerobic oxidizing fosforitsirovaniye.
Molecular electronics is defined as coding (record), processing and recognition (reading of information at the molecular and macromolecular level. The main advantage of molecular approach consists in possibility of molecular design and production of devices "from below up", i.e. atom behind atom or a fragment behind a fragment, - parameters of devices are defined by organic synthesis and methods of genetic engineering. Two conventional advantages of molecular electronics are considerable reduction of the sizes of devices and the reaction time (gate propagation delays) of logical elements.
Ideas of molecular electronics are not reduced to simple replacement of the semiconductor transistor on molecular though also this private problem will be solved. A main goal nevertheless is creation of the difficult molecular systems realizing at the same time some various effects which are carrying out a complex challenge. It is natural to carry to problems of this type first of all a problem of creation of a universal element of memory, as most important part of any information device. It is represented very obvious that potential opportunities of molecular electronics will be opened in a bigger measure at creation of the neural networks consisting of neurons and connecting them electroactive synapses. Creation by means of molecular electronics of artificial neurons, various type of the sensors included in a uniform network will open a way to realization of all potential opportunities put in neurocomputer ideology, will allow to create essentially new type of information systems and to approach closely a solution of the problem of creation of artificial intelligence.
Bioelectronics showing the section of molecular electronics investigates possibility of use of biopolymers as operated by light or electric impulses of modules of computer and optical systems. The main requirement to probable candidates among big family of biopolymers consists that they have to change reversibly the structure in response to a certain physical impact and generate, at least, two discrete states differing in easily measured physical characteristics (for example, spectral parameters).