The separate local subjects and characteristic elements of a relief which are distinctly distinguished from other objects on the appearance or situation on the districts convenient for use as reference points.
Typical examples of the rugged district are mountainous and mountain areas, regions of strongly developed ovrazhno-frame relief, characteristic for some steppe and forest-steppe areas, and also lake and river areas.
Relief, vegetable cover, especially wood and bushes, soil; in settlements – the highest and strong buildings with basements which are especially located at intersections of streets and squares; existence and character of natural boundaries and the sites (command heights) dominating over the surrounding district which use provides optimum conditions for supervision over the opponent and firing, and in defense compels the coming opponent to rise up slopes.
Along with use of cards and aerial photographs the district also by directly its survey and performance of field measurements. Most often such measurements should be done at orientation, definition of location of the purposes and other objects, fire, etc.
As the most important source of obtaining information on topographical elements of the district – their mutual situation, coordinates, the sizes, outlines and other quality and quantitative indices - topographic maps serve.