Microwave heating of meat products — rather complex challenge not only from the point of view of technology of generation of the microwave oven, but also from features of a structure and properties of products. Therefore, despite advantage of microwave heating, does not to reject traditional methods, on the contrary, in their rational combination — the most fruitful and constructive way.
The high-quality changes caused by heating are generally similar. Ways of heating are various: water, steam, we heat, alternating electric current, in contact or without contact with the heating environment. As water is a component of meat products, in all cases occurs in the conditions of impact of hot water on parts. Therefore also changes in a product will be connected the first stage with hydrolysis of components and a number of the reactions happening in the presence of water. Heating temperature belongs to one of the major factors making these changes.
Cooking. Cooking of sausages is meant as processing at a temperature to. 70 °C in the central part of a product. Such heating provides a denaturation of proteins, hydrothermal disintegration of the most part of collagen, change of fats and extractive substances in the desirable party and almost elimination of vegetative microflora.
Electrocontact infrared and superhigh-frequency heatings. Owing to specifics of raw materials (small heat conductivity) in the meat industry thermal processes are rather long. It complicates mechanization and automation of production. Prospects of use of processes, by direct contact of electric current with a product, do not raise doubts.
At EK-, VCh-and microwave heatings heat is allocated in the processed material, surrounding details cold that is equivalent to lack of thermal inertia of the heater. The essence of electrocontact heating is that electric current, passing through a product, resistance, causes its heating. Two options of constructive registration of process of heating of meat products are possible: at motionless product in processing and at its movement along electrodes.
Koptilny substances possess quite high N the bakteriostatichesky action having character. Possess the greatest resistance to action of substances a mold. They are capable to develop even at an adverse temperature and humidity of air, on a surface of well prokopchenny products. Are very steady, though to a lesser extent, disputes of microorganisms.
The forcemeat subjected to cooking represents a disperse phase of high volume concentration, evenly in the dispersive environment. In such state there is a contact of particles with each other or contact of the adsorptive layers and solvatny covers, strong and capable to interaction covering particles. As a result of such interaction of a particle communicate in a continuous and form with the dispersive environment, i.e. moisture, a uniform monolithic conglomerate with well expressed tverdoobrazny properties and penetrated by a dense network micro and.
For production of quality ready sausages it is necessary to choose correctly the mode of cooking and character of a of heat. For cooking of sausages the heating environment hot water, sharp steam and the steam-air environment. Cooking in hot water has a number of advantages before others of a. It both smaller losses of mass of a product, and a smaller of a cover at preservation of brighter coloring of a surface of products. However at this way labor costs of performance of various transport operations are considerable. It is expedient to to carry out cooking in hot water on of low power.